Thursday, March 12, 2020

Mountain Lion Facts (Puma concolor)

Mountain Lion Facts (Puma concolor) The mountain lion (Puma concolor) is the second largest cat in the Americas after the jaguar. While its a big animal, the mountain lion is actually the largest small cat. Its more closely related to the domestic cat than to the lion or tiger. Puma concolor holds the Guinness World Record for the animal with the most common names. It is known as the mountain lion, cougar, puma, catamount, and about 40 other names in English. In keeping with its Linnaean name, scientists call the cat a puma. Fast Facts: Mountain Lion Scientific Name: Puma concolorCommon Names: Mountain lion, puma, cougar, pantherBasic Animal Group: Mammal Size: 4.9-9.0 feetWeight: 121-150 poundsLifespan: 8-10 yearsDiet: CarnivoreHabitat: The AmericasPopulation: 50,000Conservation Status: Least Concern Description The mountain lion is the fourth largest cat in the world after the tiger, lion, and jaguar. The cats coat is tawny on top and lighter on the belly, leading the name mountain lion. Males and females look similar, but males tend to be larger. Males average around 7.9 feet from nose to tail tip, while females average 6.7 feet in length. In general, adults range from 4.9 to 9.0 feet long. Males weigh 117 to 220 pounds (average 150 pounds), while females weigh between 64 and 141 pounds (average 121 pounds). Although mountain lions are large, they are not considered to be big cats because they cannot roar. However, they can produce a distinctive scream known as caterwauling. Habitat and Distribution The mountain lion has the largest range of any terrestrial American animal. It is adapted to diverse habitats from the Yukon in Canada down to the southern Andes in South America. In North America, mountain lions have been extirpated in the eastern half of the continent, with the exception of the Florida panther. Diet and Behavior Like other cats, the mountain lion is an obligate carnivore. While deer are its most important food source, the mountain lion will kill and eat anything it can catch, ranging from insects all they way up in size to moose. The mountain lion is an ambush predator that stalks its prey and pounces. It uses its bite to break its victims neck or else suffocate it. Following a successful hunt, the mountain lion drags its prey to a cache and hides it with brush. It returns to the cache to feed over the course of several days. Like most cats, mountain lions are crepuscular and tend to hunt before dawn and after dusk. Reproduction and Offspring Mountain lions are solitary except during mating and, for females, when caring for cubs. Although females are in estrus for 8 days of a 23-day cycle, they usually have only one litter every two or three years. After mating, the pair separates. Gestation last 91 days. The female seeks a cave or other protected space to give birth and rear her young. She most often gives birth to two cubs, although a litter may range from one to six cubs. The kittens are born blind and have spotted coats. When the cats eyes first open, they are blue. Cubs are weaned around three months of age and remain with their mother at least two years. Juveniles lose their spots around two and a half years of age. On average, one in five kittens survives to adulthood. Females become sexually mature between one and a half to three years of age. Males must establish their own territory before they can mate. In the wild, the average life expectancy of a mountain lion is 8 to 10 years. The cats may live much longer in captivity. Here, the average lifespan is about 20 years, but one cat died just short of its 30th birthday. Mountain lion kittens are spotted and have blue eyes. Jeff Wendorff / Getty Images Hybrids The mountain lion and a leopard can mate to produce a hybrid called a pumapard. Pumapards exhibit dwarfism and grow to about half the size of their parents. The hybrids have bodies of pumas, but with unusually short legs. The coat pattern is more similar to that of the leopard. The base color is tawny or gray with either brown or faded rosettes. Conservation Status The IUCN categorizes the mountain lions conservation status as least concern. The IUCN estimates fewer than 50,000 cats remain in the breeding population and the number continues to decline. Threats Mountain lions face multiple threats to their survival. Human encroachment has led to habitat loss, habitat degradation, and diminished prey availability. Breeding populations are becoming increasingly isolated and at risk of inbreeding depression. While the cat is protected in part of its range, hunting remains common in many countries, including the United States and Canada. Mountain lions are also susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus, which may be spread by domestic cats. Mountain Lions and Humans Mountain lions rarely attack humans because people are not recognized as prey, but the number of attacks has been increasing. As of 2004, 88 attacks and 20 deaths had been recorded in North America since 1890. Most attacks occur when humans encroach on a cats territory or when the feline is starving. Children are much more likely to be attacked than adults. If threatened by a mountain lion, the best defense is to fight back. Running away, standing still, or playing dead are all ineffective strategies. Mountain lions are occasionally kept as pets, although there are cases of the cats attacking their handlers. A pet puma named Messi has a large following on YouTube. Healthy mountain lions usually do not view people as prey. DOUGBERRY / Getty Images Sources Beier, Paul. Cougar attacks on humans in the United States and Canada. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 19: 403–412, 1991.Nielsen, C.; Thompson, D.; Kelly, M.; Lopez-Gonzalez, C. A. Puma concolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015 (errata version published in 2016): e.T18868A97216466. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T18868A50663436.enSubramanian, Sushma. Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?. Scientific American, April 14, 2009.Sweanor, Linda L.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Hornocker, Maurice G. Puma responses to close approaches by researchers. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 33 (3): 905–913, 2005. doi:10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33[905:PRTCAB]2.0.CO;2Â  Wozencraft, W.C. Order Carnivora. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45, 2005. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 4

Marketing - Essay Example Here several different aspects of the company like, marketing tools used by the company, the issues faced in terms of the customers, control system issues faced by the company and several other elements will be discussed. Overview of Company The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (HSBC) group is one of the most global banks and the company has been able to reach out to a wide range of markets. Most of the principal companies of the group opened over a century ago and the companies have had a wide range of achievements and also provide excellent variety. The company has differentiated its brand name and image and is recognised by the slogan of ‘The World’s Local Bank’ (HSBC, 2011). The bank is headquartered in London and is among the largest banking and financial services organisation. The company has over 8000 offices across 87 different countries and is listed on the London, Hong Kong, Paris, Bermuda and New York stock exchanges. The company cater s to a wide range of customers and serves as many as 100 million customers across the globe based on four of its main services, i.e. Performance financial services, commercial banking, Private banking and also the global banking (HSBC, 2011). Reasons for Choice The main reason to choose this bank is the international nature of the bank. Also, HSBC is among the very few banks equally famous in Europe, America as well as Africa and Asia. The company’s brand name and image that it has created allows it to become a name for every home. Also, HSBC has been extremely successful in marketing itself over the years and the bank has developed a strong brand image across the globe. Hence this is worth studying. SWOT Analysis of HSBC The table below provides a gist of the SWOT of HSBC. A detailed analysis has been included below the table Strengths Weaknesses * Strong Brand Image * Well Capitalized * Strong Market Presence * Global Presence * Excellent Marketing Strategies * Strong Perfo rmance During the economic slowdown as well * Strong use of Information Systems * Excellent Online Systems * Strong ability to stay in track with market need * Focus on different target markets * Strong and well developed marketing strategies at a global level * Although the company has performed well during the economic slowdown, higher risks and compromise of activities has been present * Large losses due to the Sub Prime Crisis * High Mortgage rates, without considering the external fall in rates * Employee Issues * Lacking strong customer care * Brand Image * Loss of the global marketing director Peter Stringham led to various confusions and chaos Opportunities Threats * The strong capitalization of the company opens various options to acquire better assets * Available capital for take over * HSBC has a strong position in the market and this can be used effectively to outperform other banks * Trusted Bank across the globe thereby giving it higher chances for better recognition w orld wide * Issues like the Sub Prime *Falling property rates leads to higher defaults from the home owners there by leaving the bank with high bad debts * Recent financial losses has impacted the customers as well as the stakeholders thereby leading to reduced trust in the bank HSBC has created a business and brand image which has been constant across the world. The company has been able to make a number of acquisitions across the globe and HSBC has been gained great success in terms of the corporate

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Written statement about educational psychology (Human Development) Personal

Written about educational psychology (Human Development) - Personal Statement Example My interest in human psychology and educational background make me a suitable candidate to get admission in the University of Colorado’s master degree program. I believe that a master degree in this field will definitely help me achieve my personal and professional goals. One main reason for applying in this program is related to my professional life. I want to establish my career in the field of educational psychology, and that is only possible if I get an opportunity to get a master degree from a prestigious university. University of Colorado is known for its highly qualified faculty not only in field of educational psychology (human development) but also in all other courses being offered by the university. It is due to the well-experienced faculty of the University of Colorado, that I have taken my decision to do masters from this great university. I want to complete my education under the guidance of well-experienced faculty of the University of Colorado, as it will help me become a professional in the field of educational psychology. After completing my education, I want to use my knowledge and skills to ensure proper child development, to bring productive changes in the lives of children, and to make children come out of educational stress. I want to be skilled in using educational and psychological assessment techniques to help children who face difficulties in learning and social adjustment. I believe that a country can progress only if its citizens get high quality education from the top universities of the world. I have collected facts about the universities, which offer Master in Education Psychology (Human Development) program and after analyzing all facts and issues, I have made up my mind to pursue the master degree from the University of Colorado because it provides highest quality education in all fields of study. I believe that the

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Future of Graphic Arts Essay Example for Free

The Future of Graphic Arts Essay Public works projects were promoted by Lester Beall during the 1930s. The depiction of this project is describes as this poster for the Rural Electrification Administration juxtaposes a photograph of two young people against an abstracted American flag to express optimism for a technologically enhanced future (WebCT, 2002). This is also a political manifestation in the way that there is a presentation of an image designed to give hope in a time where there are different social problems. However, this was not a new move, as in 1917 there was the use of graphic art in the form of posters as a reaction against the social condition, and supporting the revolution (WebCT, 2002). In the country there was support given to the Russian Telegraph Agency (ROSTA) (WebCT, 2002). If we look at the way these posters were made we can see why thy were so limited, with poster printed by hand, or attentively only with the use of rough stencils (WebCT, 2002). This limited the amount of posters but still the work of artists such as Gustav Klutsis and Mikhail Razulevich development and used more mechanical methods of reproductions (WebCT, 2002). Nearby in Germany politics was also the subject of John Heartfield where he was against the rise of the Nazi part though this use of graphic arts, however, this time the images were more direct with the use if graphic art as a political advertising using photomontages as well as slogans on a single poster (WebCT, 2002). This was a demonstration of how graphic art could be used to develop emotional feeling regarding public issues and to change the opinions of those watching (WebCT, 2002). This has been used again and against throughout history, with the different message against the status quo being depicted in images relevant to the contemporary society (McQuiston and Greer, 1997). Here we have seen the beginnings of the development, how society and politics have influenced the way that the art has been developed. If we want to look to what the future may hold we need to take a leap and consider how the more recent past has developed with the use of graphic art. Here we can then see the way that the foundations were built upon. To undertake this there are many approaches that can be developed. The way in which graphic art has development may be seen in many mediums in many countries. , However , in keeping with the theme of looking to the future we will look at an artist of the past that was both prolific, and seen as looking ahead of his time to what the future would hold. To this end we will consider the role of one of the most influential graphic artists of the twentieth century; Paul Rand. III. Paul Rand In considering a specific work of a well known designer we can understand how the work influence the customer as well as influenced the wider environment of that of graphic design and the way that the influences that are felt in the short term and the long term. In looking at Paul Rands work we can conclude that he influenced not only his clients, but also appreciate the wider influence he has had ion the graphic design industry in general as well as appreciating the uniqueness of his own style, as was demonstrated by the design of many logos including that of IBM. There are many graphic designers that have had a long lasting impact on the way we see the world and interpret its meaning. Some designers have been subtle in the influence and the range of designs that have made a difference have been anything from typefaces to landmarks, but one of the best known, if not by name then by his work must be that of Paul Rand, also known as Papa logo (Lange 1998). Paul Rand has a wide range of styles and worked in the field of advertising, and can be seen to have made a great impact, his specially was branding, and the specific work we will be considering here will be the well known IBM logo (Hurlbert, 1979). The idea of a logo that was innovative and had meaning as well as a message may have been new and groundbreaking in the days of Rand, but it is partly due to his wide ranging influence that we can see the wide practice of branding has taken the current route. It is also a shame that in this modern world where the forte of Rands talents lay there has been a common practice of branding which has become homogenised and bland (Hurlbert, 1979). This is not a criticism that can be seen to have been levelled at Rand, who not only designed this innovative and still used logo. Rand was also responsible for logos such as the carriers UPS, Cummins Engines, Yale University and Next Computers (Lange 1998). This logo is unique and the style is recognised widely, even if the actual company name cannot be read the distinction is very clear. It was Rands intention to design logos and other works which were not only recognisable and identifiable very easily, but also one that can be seen as having a real meaning, which is demonstrated very clearly by the logo designed for IBM. The brief of any designer in looking to brand an organisation will often be rather vague, there will be a requirement for the Logo to be suited to the corporate culture, but this in itself is an intangible, and as such it very difficult to describe, it will also need to indicate the sphere of operation or characteristics that the client wants the logo to bring to mind when it is viewed by the clients own customers. The IBM logo has become well known for its blocked design that appear to indicate a clean cut image with is both technological and simple, with colours that are seen as safe but also bold an innovative without threat. If we look for the way in which the design was inspired then we may be looking for a very difficult element, in other designs this may be more apparent, such as his advert for El Producto poster in 1953 we can see that there was a message of merry Christmas (Rand, 1953). The actual content of the design can be seen as imitating Christmas as the cigars which are depicted in them are cigar shaped but lot a great deal more interesting due to the fact they appear in Christmas designs such as we might expect to see on Christmas wrapping paper or decorations for the seen. The inspiration here is more easily observed, but this inspiration for IBM must has existed, yet describing his talent and style has been described by some as trying to catch lightening in a bottle, but we can see inspiration in the way that the logo was used once it had been designed (Hurlbert, 1979). His style was simplistic, and he took the inspiration form may sources, but the need for something that was not elaborate but served as functional is very clear in this design. In the way that posters were later designed to advertise IBM we start to see the inspiration of his humour and the way in which he would play ion words. This can be seen as making a great deal of sense as if we look at the way in which other Logos were also designed there was always an innovative way of the company initials being used to convey and communicate the idea of the company and to build up associations regarding the company. Therefore it is fair to assume that the play on words and the way in which the letters were all used were not only effective but also consciously used in such a way. With IBM the design is one that appears to be of technical specifications, but the humour was to come out later. In an advertisement where the logo was to be used there was a change which emphasised the way on which the logo could be immediately recognised, but would still gain attention rather than be brushed off due to its familiarity, in this Rand left the M, from IBM and replaced the I with and eye, and the B with a bee (Lange 1998). A play on words, but also on the perception of the product and brand as well as inspiration derived from the everyday world around us, but filled will psychological meaning, putting into place the quote from the beginning of this paper. However, the management of IBM prevented it ever seeing the light of day and being subjected to the customers critique as they did not believe if conveyed the IBM message It was not IBM (Lange 1998). The role he had on the industry as a result of successes like this was not kept to himself but communicated in the same medium as that of his work, through the printed word in many many manuals on how to design logos and polish their appearance (Lange 1998). In his own words the trademark should embody in the simplest form the essential characteristics of the product or institution being advertised (Rand, 2000). However, if also saw it as the designers job to be able to bring the formality down on occasion, and the way in which he is described as an idealist and a realist using the language of the poet and the businessman. He thinks in terms of need and function. He is able to analyse his problems, but his fantasy is boundless appears to embody the form and function where they both appear to be of importance, but the realism and the poetry are also very apparent (Hurlbert, 1979). If we try and see if there are any autobiographic aspects to this work this is a more difficult perspective simply du to the simplicity of the work, however the work in print can be seen as an aspect of his very early work when he was hired by Esquire magazine (Hurlbert, 1979). The humour that is apparent in the rejected IBM advertisement is also autobiographical as the way in which he sees the world was seen by many who met him as one which encompasses a large degree of humour as well as common sense (Hurlbert, 1979). In his early days there was a need for succinct design produced at a rapid rate for use in mails shoot advertising and magazine copy, but the need for the inclusion of artistic style was also recognised as many of his works were seen on a regular basis as the Art Directors Club (Hurlbert, 1979). If we compare this grounding with the IBM logo, there is both the simplistic that comes with the need for speed, but also the style and grace which can be seen as an aspect of art and design. The impression we get of the IBM logo is that it has always just been there, associated wit the company on such as basic level that we are apt to forget its origin for a man who started he career in the 1930s (Hurlbert, 1979). The symbolic content can also be recognised by the colours as well as the lines. / They appear to be very geometrically spaced, with a great deal of precision not only in the distance between each line, but also in the way that the letter line up. The white ion the blue background serves to emphasis this contrast and therefore gives an impression of precision that we now associate with the company. If we consider the way that he may have been influenced by others at the same time there is a little difficulty as he was seen as a leader rather than a follower, but the simplistic design can also be seen as functional for the reproduction as well as recognition. If we consider the work in relation to Rands other work then it is neither relatively significant or insignificant, it is a typical example of the way in which function and form were combined. From the advertising campaigns for bill boards and magazine cover designs as well as the logos there are some common characteristics, such as the idea of the simple being better than the complex, the ability of the design being something that the client as well as the customers can relate to. When we look at the other Logos this common thread is very well illustrated. However, we can argue that this one logo may also be significant as it is probably one of the best known examples of his work, recognised throughout the globe and still used today. The UPS insignia must also come a close second, but this also consists of the same characteristics, the simple designee, although a little more complex, is immediately identifiable, but in this case the symbolism is also more openly apparent. Other logos such as the Yale University one can be seen to have exactly the same style of simplistic function, where form is an art, and as such we can argue that the piece of work studied in this paper could have been substituted for any of his other works and the conclusions would be the same. Although he dies in 1996 the influence he has left on the art of graphic design has not reduced, his work is still studied and admired, and perhaps the best and most significant legacy is the continued use of the works from the man also known as papa logo. In many ways his work can still be seen as relevant, yet it was still as a result of the technology changes that he was able to form these images, and the effective nature of many may be seen as a result of the increased art of typography. Therefore, to understand the development of this we also need to consider the development of typography. IV. Typography Typography is seen in everyday life, from the newspapers we read, the television programmes we watch to the numbers on buses and the advertisements on the bill boards. To what typography consists of we need to look at the characteristics that are present in the lettering. There are many typefaces and different ways for those typefaces to be presented. It is in this development of typography we can argue that the computer has been great influence, allowing for more type faces to be developed and for the uses of these typefaces to be manipulated more easily. This has been a boon to the graphic artist, and in understanding the ability to develop an image as simple as a letter using the computer then we can appreciate the way that larger images many also be manipulated. These are used in practically all manifestations of graphical arts. The use of a type face creates an image, and even in an item as simple as a menu it has been proven to have a discernable effect on customer perceptions and resulting purchases that are made (Heimann, 1998). When we consider the purpose of typography it has to be seen as more than simply a communication of words, however if we break it down into its smallest component of typography can be seen in the following way The basic unit of all type design is the individual letter. Letters come together to form words, and words come together to form stories (Anonymous, 2000). This is the role of the graphic artist, to present an image that communicates, this may be story, a feeling a perception or just an image that will be recalled for a later association. It is in this last section off the quote that we can see that way the typography is used can convey a great deal about a story. For example if we see a film being advertised with typography that is jagged and looks like it is dripping with blood then we can automatically assume that it will be a horror movies of some sort. This is the message that is conveyed in the layout and design of the typography. The typography will be different on a romance than on a science fiction film, due to the different perceptions they create. The advances in the use of the computer here can be seen in the aiding of the design by trying out and manipulating designs without the need to keep making mock up posters and by trying out changes speedily at the click of a button. This can be seen as very useful in a number of ways, it reduces the materials used so that there are greater ranges of possibilitys at a lower cost. The time element is also much shorter, and as such the costs can be seen as proportionately lower. The need for an expert can also be seen as reduced, with the computer there is no longer the need for specific training as the range of programmes that can be used allow almost anyone with a typing skills can take on the task of a typographer. Therefore, the range of uses of these type faces and the extent of the styles can be seen as no long only the realms of the professional. Small businesses are able to produce their own business stationary and develop their own advertisements and literature, even a local parish or community magazine that used to be hand types can look like a professionally produced publication. However, when these are used there are still some very basic rules that are followed the advantage with the computer and the ability to see the layout before a publication is printed on a large scale can be to see that in the main even those without training or specific knowledge will follow them naturally. The ability to keep the readers attention is a combination of factors. The first will be the content of the text, and if we are looking at this from a purely typographical or graphical art perspective then this is not in the control of the typesetter (Anonymous, 2000). The design of the text and the size of the text are important as illegible text or test that is uncomfortable to read will loose the interest of the reader just as easily as boring content (Anonymous, 2000). The next items that need to be considered are not so obvious unless you look at a piece of typesetting where they are wrong, and then it becomes obvious. There are the line lengths and the spacing between the words and letters. It is these spacing between letters that can make a publications look professional. Until the computer was in many homes and small businesses the typing would be on a conventional type writer where the space between each letter is the same with no sense of proportion as seen in the courier and the courier new type faces (Anonymous, 2000). This fixed spacing has become associated with the home produced leaflets that were duplicated with duplicating machine or by the use of photocopiers has become less apparent as proportional fonts have been used, examples may be seen as the popular times new roman that is a well used font. The difference here is that the proportional basis of a font means that smaller letters, such as a i or an l will take up less rook than a w or an m, similar to the way handwriting takes place and the pattern is easier in the eye as apparent gaps between letters in the same word will all be the same (Will-Harris, 2000). In addition there will also be the element of the actual line spacing. If the lines are too close together the typeface, whatever it is will be difficult to read and there will be a crowding effect (Will-Harris, 2000). Again the use of the computer enable this to be seen and adjusted before any documents are even printed so out rarely becomes an issue (Will-Harris, 2000). There will also be issues such as the actual form of the entire setting as well as the quality of the reproduction, which may or may not be issues the typesetter will be involved in. However he how of the typesetting comes together to form a message and communicate an issue or an idea so in this way we can see that the typesetting can be as important as the content, get it wrong and people will not read it whatever it says (Will-Harris, 2000). However, if we are going to consider how the computer has influence the development of typography we can also look to the actual type fonts that are used. There are even programmes able now that can scan a persons handwriting and then code it into the computer as a type face or font so that it will be reproduced when typing. In a broader sense, there have been other wide scale developments directly due to the computer. The use of computers and the advent if they Internet have seen the development of a collection of new typefaces or fonts to cope with the individual situations and specific needs of this medium. Two fonts have been developed by Microsoft with this in mind. Mathew Carter was responsible for the development of Verdana which is a sans serif named after the verdant Seattle region (Will-Harris, 2000). The second is Georgia, a bright serif labelled due to a tabloid headline concerning alien heads allegedly found in the area of Georgia (Will-Harris, 2000). Verdana is easier to read on a screen as the x height is higher than normal giving the type face a larger appearance without the need for more space (Will-Harris, 2000). There is also special attention taken with the letters that are sometimes easily confused on screen such as i, l and j and I where the formations of the letters is slightly different, with slightly different height to distinguish them more easily (Will-Harris, 2000). Georgian is similar as it still has a higher x point, but not has high as Verdana, but is still retains an almost times new roam feel about it so it can be used in traditional circumstances, and again can be seen as easier to read simply because it has been designed specifically for the screen, yet they also reproduce well in print (Will-Harris, 2000). Therefore we can see how the computer has impacted on the development of typography, in the way it is used, developed and put together to the actual design of the fonts. It has come a long way in a short period of time, and is likely to go further, especially in the hands of the graphic artists, both in the design as well as in the use. There are also computer aided design packages that will develop new fonts, even for an amateur, such as handwriting fonts of an individual that are scanned in. Here we can see that there is a development with a cross over of the many different art forms and the way in which inspiration impacts on the art. To look to the future we have seen how there has been inspiration in the past, and how this has impacted on graphic art, The next stage must be to consider the way in which inspiration may be gained in the future. V. Inspiration The first factor we need to consider here is that the cross over of the different art forms is increasing, a graphic artist may use a camera or paints, a typographer may also be a graphic artist. Expression in the arts has always looked for new and innovative ways to be presented. This have often used newer and more radical as the forum for ideas and inspiration in the search for the ways in which to be inspired and find the spark required for creativity to take place. Just as in any other art form graphic design can be inspired or developed from what is seen around us and the every day mediums which we all come across. For example, we can consider the art of contemporary photography. The argument for the adoption and acceptance of contemporary photography techniques in graphic design can be that in contemporary photographs we may find more contrasts and forms which are suitable for graphic design. The way in which the pictures are framed and made up with different contents and contrasts in colours may also be more suitable to be adapted and changed rather than a traditional countryside view. They may be developed more appropriately. The best way to demonstrate this is to take two contemporary photographs and examine what may be gained from them by a graphic designer. The way in which they add to an idea or be developed to a specific outcome by providing a concept or a form from which the designer can work. Alternatively the way in which the photography may demonstrate to the graphic designer ways of working. The first photograph we will consider is Sandy Trails, was taken in 1999 by Tony Chumak and can be seen at http://tonychumakstudios. com/GallerySeries8/Tcs_Image_144-24X-A-L. asp. This is only on the boarders of contemporary photography. It is a landscape with a difference, in the centre of the landscape is a pattern in the sand which would normally be avoided by the photographer. This photograph demonstrates the way in which contemporary photography can capture texture and image, which is only available through this one medium. It is often said that art should convey a social message (Rich, 1998). This is true whether it is fine are or graphic design and whether the purpose of the work ids art or even advertising (Rich, 1998). The use of a photograph such as this can be used to convey many different types of message depending on the context n which the graphic designer is working By looking at this picture aspects suitable for graphic use can be seen. The contrast of the shades of sand caused by the lighting cast shadows which can almost appear alive and stark. Natural forms and shapes can lead to very pleasing and easy to use or interpret ideas for a designer. A shape formed by the wind of the sea flows and the graphic designer can take this line and simplicity and translate it to all manner of variable uses. Curves flow through the medium which is devoid of life forming shapes which approximately can be seen as more than waves, but of forms in the sand which can be placed together with a little imagination and thought. The adaptation of what is normally straight or fixed into a flowing contemporary shape has long been used in design.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Unhealthy Images of the Female Body :: Psychology, Self-esteem

To some degree women in various cultures have always experienced the pressure to conform to specific ideals. The new phenomenon in Western society is telling women that beauty has requirements. That is, to be attractive you must be incredibly thing, firm, but not muscular and large breasted (Grogan 41). Unhealthy images of the female body are continuously displayed in almost all aspects of media, but television commercials are an incredibly strong influence. Although there are many influential commercials, the ad campaign by Victoria's Secret, Love My Body, is particularly frightening. The television commercials star the typical "stick thin and busty" models (McDonell-Parry) parading around in their underwear, wind blowing through their hair, making comments such as "I love my body", "my body is sexy" and "my body is my favorite body". The idea of confidence is possibly trying to be portrayed here, but the company strongly reinforces the narrow image of beauty created in Western society by choosing models that conform to Westernized beauty standards, thus contradicting the theme of confidence (McDonell-Parry). This specific Victoria's Secret commercial, along with many other commercials, are being viewed by thousands of women, both young and old. The portrayal of these women on TV sends a message to young females that confidence is fun and sexy, but you can only have it if you are extremely thin, busty, and beautiful like the displayed women. The commercials for the new line of bras could have easily been made to promote the love and appreciation of all women, despite their shape or size, but it chose to reinforce the unrealistic standards that the typical media source holds. It is images and ads like these that create inward negative feelings in young women. Self-esteem is considered to be a â€Å"positive or negative attitude toward†¦ the self† (Clay 451). Negative attitudes in young women can stem from a variety of internal or external forces. An accurate method to measure a young female’s self-esteem is through the interpretation of body dissatisfaction and what provokes it. Body dissatisfaction occurs due to three things, in the present day: the desire to be thin, the dread of weight gain and the idea that weight and shape are essential to a female’s character (Levine 11). All of these determinants of body dissatisfaction are a result of how media uses an unrealistic female body in virtually all of its aspects, thus creating a cultural norm that being "thin is attractive" (Levine 15).

Monday, January 13, 2020

Japan Invades China (1931-37)

Japan invades China (1931-37) Japan’s main objectives of invading China in 1931 were to destroy communism and poses control over neighboring areas on the Asian continent. It was believed such a control was necessary to be able to issue possible military threats and inquire the natural resources needed to insure Japan’s economic independence. â€Å"By defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, Japan acquired possession of Russia’s Liaodong Peninsula Leasehold, which she renamed the Kwantung Leased Territory, and the South Manchurian Railroad† (BJorge, 2011).After Korea was captured in 1910, Manchuria was filled with mineral wealth, gorgeous farmland, and potential value as a defensive Korea from both China and Russia. In the 1920s, many of the Kwantung army believed Japan should take over Manchuria just like they did in Korea. Plotting began to conquer Manchuria with direct military action which led to the first invasions of China in th e 1930s. (BJorge, 2011) The plan was made to be easy; a railroad on the Southern side of Mukden was made to explode to give the Kwantung an excuse to attack the nearby Manchurian army stations and the storage of weapons in the city.Once that was complete, the Kwantung army was easily expandable until all of Manchuria was captured. The government officials of Tokyo tried to stop the plot, but the Kwantung army attacked before the warning was issued. The bomb was set off on September 18, 1931 and the Kwantung army started moving into action. (BJorge, 2011) China turned to the League of Nations for support. At the time, the nationalist government did not want a war with Japan and either did the Japanese government and therefore ordered the Kwantung army to fall back and negotiate a reasonable solution.But the Kwantung army refused and continued attacking other cities and ended up sending troops into Manchuria. The Kwantung army was very powerful because of their popularly Japanese citi zens. Even though it was unacceptable for the Kwantung army to disobey, the separation of Manchuria from China would be in Japan’s favor. (BJorge, 2011) In May 1935, Japan’s Tinainjin fort demanded all Guomindang military units and officers to leave the Hebei state. Jiang Jieshi was still dedicated to his goal of destroying his communist enemies. Japan, it seemed, was well on the way to achieving her goal of separating north China from Nanjing government administration† (BJorge, 2011). In October 1935, the Japanese prime minster wanted China to accept Manchukuo to join with Japan to build up north China’s economy. This proposal was seen as impossible for the reason of the anti-Japanese anger in China. The anger forced Jiang to end his anti-communist cause. (BJorge, 2011) On the night of July 7, 1937, some Chinese fired shells where the Japanese troops were planning at the Marco Polo Bridge, which is about ten miles from Beijing.Japanese thought a missing s oldier was caught by the Chinese and the Japanese officer ordered a search. On July 8, when his requested was denied, he bombed the city. Chinese tried to attack the Japanese but failed. Several days later, five divisions were made in Japan by the Japanese War Ministry, four divisions were sent to southern Hebei, and the Japanese troops from Manchuria attacked northern China. Then on July 19, an agreement was signed, by the Chinese general Song Zheyan, to withdraw troops from Wanping. Six days later a fight broke out close to the Marco Polo Bridge and Japanese troops detained the bridge.On July 28, the Chinese evacuated to save themselves before it was too late, while Japanese forces captured Tianjin two days later. That was the day Jiang decided that he will lead Japan and fight to finish the operation until the end. (Beck, 2007) On August 11, Jiang Jieshi moved 80,000 men into Shanghai. China tried to air force bomb the Japanese warships, but ended up missing and killing hundreds of civilians in Shanghai. At the end of August the Chinese forces tried to fight and attack the Japanese in Shanghai, but were unsuccessful and turned back to the defensive side in September and October.The Chinese lost 250,000 soldiers compared to 40,000 Japanese soldiers. In November, thanks to French priest Jacquinot de Bessage, some Chinese civilians were given a place to live after losing their home. (Beck, 2007) The Shanxi capital Taiyuan fell on November 9. In late September, the Communists won at Pingxingguan successfully killing about 500 Japanese and gained a hundred equipment trucks. They would have retrieved more, but the remaining Japanese destroyed their equipment and committed suicide. Beck, 2007) The Japanese broke through enemy lines in Shanghai and Chinese began withdrawing toward Nanjing on November 11. Jiang felt the world was on his side, even though the League of Nations did not take any action, and the signing of the non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union h ad no impact. But Japan was well on their way of completing their mission; the forces took over Beijing in September, Shijiazhuang in October, Taiyuan in November, Qingdao in August, and Jinan in December. (Beck, 2007) The former warlord Tang Shengzhi was ordered to hold Nanjing.The Japanese were promising the civilians to treat them well as their follow Chinese soldiers were killing and robbing people to take everything they could to escape. Jiang refused to stop fighting and the Japanese began bombing on December 10. Before the Japanese army arrived, half of the population had already left Nanjing. â€Å"The Presbyterian missionary W. Plumer Mills had learned of Bessage’s neutral zone, and the Americans and Europeans organized a safety zone that included Nanjing University, Ginling Women’s Arts and  Science College, the American embassy, and Chinese government buildings† (Beck, 2007).On November 22, the International Committee was made for the Nanjing Safety Zone. Three days later Adolf Hitler was asked to negotiate with the Japanese government to respect the neutral zone for the noncombatants. After all of that was settled, the Japanese continued their bombing to the military targets. More than one hundred thousand people were protected in the Safety Zone. (Beck, 2007) On December 12, Tang Shengzhi abandoned Nanjing and the Japanese troops entered the city the next day.For the seven weeks after that they killed about 30,000 Chinese soldiers, thrashed most of the civilians not in the safety zone, and burned most of the city. Between 20,000 and 80,000 women were raped or taken as slaves. It was estimated more than 200,000 Chinese civilians were exterminated by Japanese soldiers in Nanjing after the war. The Japanese dragged and murdered some of the ex-soldiers in the Safety Zone. â€Å"Jiang and Yan Xishan approved the Communist base in the Jin-Cha-Ji border region on January 22, 1938, but that was the first and last Communist base beh ind enemy lines that the Nationalists recognized† (Beck, 2007).The outcome of this invasion was terrible on China as the Chinese’s soldiers tried to fight to survive but were weaken and about 30 million Chinese civilians were forced to leave their homes and live in regions of their country unfamiliar to them as immigrants. Japan believed the invasion was going to be quick and easy, but they found themselves stuck in an unexpected marsh as China refused to surrender and the invasion turned into the beginning of the second Sino-Japanese War. Since it was too late to escape this battle, Japan reacted to the outbreak of war in Europe, which in time led them to attack the United States.With this action, Japan made China become part of World War II and with the defeat, Japan was forced to give up everything they gained in China since 1931. With the result of the war, the Japanese failed their main objective for the reason that the communist’s strength grew greater than it ever was. This marked the end of Japanese expansion. Reference List Beck, S. (2007). China at war 1937-1949. Retrieved from http://www. san. beck. org/21-5-ChinaatWar1937-49. html Benton, G. (2012). The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino–Japanese War of 1937-1945. China Journal, (67), 189-191.BJORGE, G. J. (2011, November 13). China, invasion of (1931, 1937–1945). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1002/9781444338232. wbeow112/pdf Burrell, R. S. (2011). The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. Naval History, 25(2), 78. Cho, A. (2011). In a Sea of Bitterness: Refugees During the Sino-Japanese War. Library Journal, 136(15), 88 Falk, S. (2011). Varied Fare. Army Magazine, 61(6), 73-74. Farrell, B. P. (2011). Book Review: The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937—1945.Edited by Mark Peattie, Edward Drea and Hans van de Ven . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2011. xxv+614 pp. US$65 hbk. ISBN 978 0 .. War In History, 18(4), 566-568. doi:10. 1177/09683445110180040809 Historical Boys' Clothing. (2005, February 05). Second sino-japanese war: Japanese invasion of china (1937-45)). Retrieved from http://histclo. com/essay/war/ww2/camp/pac/china/w2c-inv. html History Learning Site. (n. d. ). The japan. Retrieved from http://www. historylearningsite. co. uk/china_war. htm Wikipedia. (n. d. ). Second sino-japanese war. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Second_Sino-Japanese_War

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Edgar Allan Poe and His Unique Writing Style - 1843 Words

Edgar Allan Poe is a unique writer with a truly unique writing style, which he displays in his work â€Å"The Raven†. Edgar Allan Poe has had a huge influence on American literature. He is often given credit for inventing the modern detective story, but his story and poems consist of much more than just a single genre. His seventy plus works consist of mystery and science fiction. His intention with his many works was to have a large range of genres. Poe’s life had a strong influence in his works. Edgar Allan Poe was born into poverty on January 19, 1809 in Boston. Poe’s family life was extremely complicated. His father abandoned his family and his career in law in order to pursue a career an acting career. Poe was later orphaned at age three.†¦show more content†¦The fact that Poe leaves the uncertainty of the narrator’s sanity is also a great part to the plot. He makes the audience guess whether or not the narrator is sane or not. The actual figure of the â€Å"Raven† is something that adds to this uncertainty. Has something been formed from darkness and sent upon the narrator just to make him go crazy, or is the narrator already crazy and just imagining the raven. These are all aspects of the plot that help me deem it as my favorite work by Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe dissected â€Å"The Raven† piece by piece in order to create it. He first had to decide on a specific length. He feels that a poem defeats it purpose if it is either too long or too short. If it is too short, it doesn’t get the point across and if it is too long, people loose interest. He therefore decided that the perfect poem should consist only one hundred words. He then started with the thought of a refrain. The refrain itself must be brief or else it becomes a distraction to the reader. This led him to choose only a single word as the refrain. Once he figured out what his refrain would be, he though of what would recite the refrain and still keep the melancholy vibe that he strives for. He was amused with the idea but figured that a parrot was a bad choice. This led him to choose the raven as bird of ill omen. Next he had to choose a melancholy topic. He thought about what the overall theme should be. He deemed â€Å"death† as the mostShow Mo reRelatedEdgar Allan Poe Biography. By. Alyssa Marshall.1260 Words   |  6 Pages Edgar Allan Poe Biography By Alyssa Marshall Mrs. Guinn English III March 6, 2017 Abstract Edgar Allan Poe was a writer in the â€Å"Gothic Era†, many of his stories genres are horror like â€Å" The Masque of The Red Death†, mystery such as â€Å" The Fall of The House of Usher†, lost love as in â€Å" The Raven†, and obsession such as â€Å" The Pit and The Pendulum†. 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When Poe turned three, his mother had passed away due to tuberculosis. Exposed to death at such a young age, it connectsRead MoreAn Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Black Cat 1650 Words   |  7 Pages1101 1 April 2015 A Day in the Life Edgar Allan Poe is a very talked about writer. He has a dark, mysterious, gothic writing style. Poe was a troubled man that struggled in a lot of different areas in his life. It is believed that all of Edgar Allan Poe’s short stories were connected to his tragic life events. â€Å"The Black Cat† is one of Edgar’s well-known short stories. It is about a man that endured a series of tragic events. This man was very feminine and his lack of masculinity soon got the bestRead MoreLiterary Techniques : Edgar Allan Poe And Richard Connell1598 Words   |  7 Pagesfeeling of macabre; literary style and technique. Only the most skilled authors have successfully used various literary elements, like suspense and foreshadowing, to create ageless stories and earn a position in the history of literature. Well known authors, such as Edgar Allan Poe and Richard Connell, use specific literary techniques to inspire and horrify young minds through their timeless works of literat ure. Biography of Edgar A. Poe To start, Edgar Allan Poe suffered through tragedy, povertyRead MoreInfluence Of A Life By Richard Connell And Edgar Allan Poe1600 Words   |  7 PagesThe Influence of a Life Richard Connell and Edgar Allan Poe, two of the most famous authors at the time, are recognize by the different types of literature they wrote. Several of these pieces are still popular today. In many cases the life of the author can impact the different themes, or the techniques they use in their stories. Richard Connell’s and Edgar Allan Poe’s backgrounds reflects in the writing techniques they used to captivate their audience. Biography of Richard Connell The famous writerRead MoreThe Father Of The Detective Story1593 Words   |  7 Pagesof the Detective Story†: How Edgar Allan Poe Developed and Influenced the Detective Fiction Genre Edgar Allan Poe has become a household name in the literary world. His unique writing style has earned him much-deserved respect and recognition. Poe s poetry and short story oeuvre follows a consistent, melancholy theme of death and darkness that has captured and haunted readers for years (Baym, et al. 683). Perhaps his most legendary contribution to literature is his creation of the enticing genre